Indian Education System During British Period : In the pre-British days, Hindus and Muslims were educated by Pathasal and Madarsa respectively. But their arrival created a new place of learning, that is, missionary. Therefore, they can form an Indian class that is “Indian in blood and color, but English in taste”, which serves as an interpreter between the government and the people.
Education is a powerful tool to open the golden door of freedom that can change the world. With the arrival of the British, their policies and actions dissolved the heritage of traditional learning schools and resulted in the need to create a class of subordinates. To achieve this, he has contributed to the creation of an Indian canvas of English color through educational policy.
Indian Education System During British Period
Initially, the British East India Company was not concerned with the development of the education system, as their main objective was trade and profit-making. For governance in India, he plans to become “English in blood and color but English in taste” to a small section of the upper and middle classes, acting as interpreter between the government and the people. This is also known as the “downstream principle”. The British took the following steps and measures for the development of education in India.
The chronological development of education in British times in India is discussed below:
1813 Law and Education (Indian Education System During British Period)
- William Wilberforce and Charles Grant, both missionaries, gave up the East India Company’s non-inventive approach, paving the way for the spread of education through English to teach Western literature and Christianity. To be promoted. Therefore, the British Parliament has added a clause in the Charter of 1813, which provides for the education of the Governor-General-in-Council and enables Christian missionaries to spread their religious views in India.
- This law has its own significance as it was first agreed by the British East India Company to promote education in India.
- Through the efforts of R. R. Roy, Calcutta College was established to provide Western education. At the same time, three Sanskrit colleges were established in Calcutta.
1823 General Instruction Committee (Indian Education System)
This committee was set up to examine the development of education in India under the dominance of Orientalists who were great supporters of oriental education rather than English. Therefore, the British India Company was pressured to promote Western education. Consequently, the spread of education in India came to a clear picture of the British educational system between the Orientalist-Anglicists and Macaulay’s conclusion.
Lord Macaulay’s Educational Policy, 1835 (Indian Education System)
- This policy is an attempt to create a system of education that will only educate the upper echelons of society.
- English became the language of the court and the language of the Persian court was abolished.
- The printing of English books was free and very cheap.
- There is more funding for English education than oriental learning.
- In 1849, the Jedi Bethune Bethune School was founded.
- The Agricultural Institute was established in Pusa (Bihar)
- The Engineering Institute was established in Roorkee.
Woods Dispatch, 1854 (Indian Education System During British Period)
- It is considered as “Magna Carta of English Education in India” and has a comprehensive plan for the spread of education in India.
- It informs the public that the state is responsible for the spread of education.
- this recommended the educational level of the hierarchy – below, Vernacular Primary School; In the district, Anglo-Vernacular High School and affiliated colleges and affiliated universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras Presidencies.
- Highly educated English and oral English at the school level are recommended.
Hunter Commission (1882–83) (Indian Education System During British Period)
- It was founded in 1882 by W.W. Formed under. Hunter to assess the successes of the Wood Dispatch of 1854.
- This emphasized the role of the state in the expansion and development of primary and secondary education.
- It describes the transfer of control to the district and municipal boards.
- It recommended two areas of secondary education – the University of Literature; Occupation to a professional career.
Sadler Commission (Indian Education System During British Period)
It was created to study the problems of the University of Calcutta and their recommendations also apply to other universities.
His observations are as follows:
- 12-year school course
- 3 years degree after the intermediate stage
- University-Centered Performance, Unitary Residential-Teaching Autonomous Body.
- Extended facilities for applied scientific and technical education, teacher training and women’s education are recommended.
So, we can say that the education of British missionaries was influenced by the aspirations of Christian missionaries. It was injected to ensure an inexpensive supply of educated Indians to increase the number of subordinate positions in administration and British occupational concerns. Therefore, they are insisting on glorifying the British conquerors and their administration as an educational medium.