Mughal Empire Family Tree – Decline of Mughal Empire: Important history notes on Mughal Dynasty to all exams (SSC, RRB, Banking, UPSC, UPPSC, etc.). (SSC, RRB, Banking, UPSC, UPPSC, etc.). All competitors can use this history notes for the best performance in the exam.
Born: 1483, Fargana (Afghanistan)
Father: Omar Sheikh Mirza
Mother: Kutlugh Nigar (Mongol)
- Founder of the Mughal dynasty.
- The first person to make gunpowder debut in India.
- He wrote Tuzuk-e-Baburi (Babur’s autobiography) in the Turkish language.
- Babar declared Jihad and assumed the title of Ghazi (after the Khanwa war).
According to Tuzuk-i-Baburi, Babur died in Lahore in 1530 and was buried at Aram Bagh (Agra). His body was taken to Afghanistan (Kabul).
- In the first battle, Ibrahim Lodi is defeated in Panipat (1526 AD).
- At the Battle of Khanwa (1527 AD) Rana Sanga (Sangram Singh) is defeated.
- At the Battle of Chanderi (1528 AD) Medini Rai of Chanderi is defeated.
- Defeated Mahmud Lodi at the Battle of Ghaghra (1529 AD) (Babur’s last war)
Humayun (1530–1556 AD)
Born: 6 March 1508, Kabul (currently located in Afghanistan)
Mother: Maham Begum
Death: 27 January 1556 (aged 47), Delhi
- Built Deenpanah in the second capital Delhi
- Humayun spent 15 years in exile
- In 1555, he again invaded India with the help of his officer Bairam Khan
- Humayun’s sister, Gulbadan Begum, wrote Humayun-Nama (Humayun’s biography)
Two battles with Sher Shah Suri
- Battle of Chausa (1539 AD)
- Battle of Kannauj (1540 AD)
Akbar (1556–1605 AD)
Born: 15 October 1542, Amarkot
Mother: Hamida Banu Begum
Death: 27 October 1605 (aged 63), Fatehpur Sikri, Agra
“Mughal Empire Family Tree – Decline of Mughal Empire”. Important facts about Akabar are:
- Accession by Bairam Khan at the young age of 14 in 1572.
- The Buland Darwaza was constructed at Fatehpur Sikri after the conquest of Gujarat in 1572 AD.
- He was married to Harkha Bai, daughter of Rajput ruler Bharmal.
- Ralph Fitch (1585 AD) was the first Englishman to enter Akbar’s court.
- End of Jizya tax (1564 AD)
- Belief in Sulh-e-Kul (peace for all)
- Built ibadat Khana (Hall of Prayer) at Fatehpur Sikri
- Issued the Ordinance of Independence (1579 AD)
- Started the religious code Din-i-Ilahi (in 1582 AD)
- The geopolitical system was called Todar Mal Settlement or Zabati system, classification of land and determination of rent.
- Launched the Mansabdari system
Akbar’s Navratnas included Todar Mal, Abul Fazl, Faizi, Birbal, Tansen, Abdur Rahim Khana-e-Khana, Mulla-do-Piazza, Raja Man Singh and Fakir Aziao-din.
- Defeated Hemu in the Second Battle of Panipat (1556 AD).
- In 1561 Malwa was defeated by defeating Baz Bahadur.
This was followed by Garh-Katanga (ruled by Rani Durgavati), Chittor (1568 AD), Ranthambore and Kalinjar (1569 AD), Gujarat (1572 AD), Mewar (Battle of Haldighati, Akbar and Rana Pratap in 1576 AD), Kashmir (1586 AD ), Sindh (1593 AD) and Asirgarh (1603 AD).
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Jahangir (1605-1627 AD)
Born: 31 August 1569, Fatehpur Sikri
Death: 28 October 1627 (Age – 58), Rajouri, Rajouri District Kashmir.
“Mughal Empire Family Tree – Decline of Mughal Empire”. Important facts about Jahangir are:
- Supported the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjun Dev.
- The biggest failure was the loss of Kandahar in 1622 in Persia.
- In 1611 AD, Maris-un-Nisa married and honored the title of Nur Jahan.
- He established Zanjeer-e-Adal at Agra Fort for seekers of royal justice.
- Captain Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe visited his court.
- Famous painters in his court were Abdul Hasan, Ustad Mansoor and Bishan Das.
- Jahangir was deeply interested in matters related to art and culture
- He successfully ended a continuous war with the Rajput princely state of Mewar in 1614.
- Haldighati battle: Jahangir and Shakti Singh
Shah Jahan / Khurram (1628-1658 AD)
Born: 5 January 1592, Lahore
Mother: Rani Manmati
Death: 22 January 1666, Agra
“Mughal Empire Family Tree – Decline of Mughal Empire”. Important facts about Shah Jahan are:
- Mughal Emperor of India (1628-58) who built the Taj Mahal.
- Taj Mahal is a masterpiece of his reign and was built in memory of Mumtaz Mahal (mother of Aurangzeb), favorite of his three queens.
- Shah Jahan’s rule was notable for successes against Deccan (Peninsular Indian) states.
- Shah Jahan shifted his capital from Agra to Delhi in 1648, building a new city named Shahjahanabad there .. – Shah Jahan was obsessed with building buildings.
- In his first capital city of Agra, he built two great mosques, Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) and Jama Masjid (Great Mosque).
- In Delhi, Shah Jahan built another Jama Masjid along with a huge fort-palace complex called Red Fort, which is one of the finest mosques in India.
- In September 1657, Shah Jahan fell ill during the struggle of his four sons, succession Dara Shikoh, Murad Bakhsh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb.
- Aurangzeb declared himself emperor in 1658 and imprisoned Shah Jahan in the Agra Fort until his death.
The following monuments were also built by him during the reign of Shah Jahan:
- Red Fort or Red Fort (Delhi)
- Agra Fort Square
- Jama Masjid Delhi)
- Moti Masjid or Pearl Mosque (Lahore)
- Shalimar Garden (Lahore)
- Section of Lahore Fort (Lahore)
- Jahangir Tomb
- Shah Jahan Mosque (Thatta)
Aurangzeb (Alamgir) (1658–1707 AD)
Born: 4 November 1618, Dohad
Father: Shah Jahan
Mother: Mumtaz Mahal
Death: 3 March 1707, Ahmednagar
“Mughal Empire Family Tree – Decline of Mughal Empire”. Important facts about Aurangzeb are:
- Aurangzeb emerged victorious after the brutal war of succession of his brothers Dara, Shuja, and Murad.
- Rebellion during his rule – Jat farmers in Mathura, Satnami farmers in Punjab and Bundelkhand in Bundelkhand.
- There was a serious rift between the Rajputs and the Mughals after the death of Raja Jaswant Singh from the capture of Marwar in 1658 AD.
- The ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was executed by him in 1675.
- The Mughal conquest achieved regional conquests during his reign.
- From Kashmir in the east to Jinji in the south, from Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east.
- He was called Darvesh or Jinda Pir. He forbade Sati. Bijapur (1686 AD) and Golconda (1687 AD) and conquered Jazia in 1679 AD.
- He built his wife’s tomb at the tomb of his queen Rauboud-Durrani in Aurangabad; Moti Masjid Delhi within the Red Fort; And built Jami and Badshahi Mosque in Lahore.
Bahadur Shah II (Zafar) (1837–57)
Born: 24 October 1775, Delhi.
Father: Akbar Sha
Mother: Lal Bai
Death: 7 November 1862 (age 87), Rangoon, British Burma.
- Bahadur Shah Zafar, also known as Bahadur Shah II, was the last Mughal emperor of India who ruled from 1837 to 1857 for a period of 20 years.
- Jafar played a major role during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 fighting the British rule for India’s independence.
- He wrote a large number of ghazals and his court was home to many Urdu writers of great repute, including Mirza Ghalib, Dagh, Mumin and Jauk.
Decline of Mughal Empire (Mughal Empire Family Tree)
- After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, a new era was introduced in Indian history, which is called the ‘Uttar Mughal period’.
- The fall of the Mughal Empire after the death of Aurangzeb is an important event in Indian history. This event laid the foundation of modern India by ending the medieval period.
- The decline of a vast empire like the Mughal Empire cannot happen for anyone reason, so historians differ on this matter.
- Yadunath Sarkar, S. R. Historians like Sharma and Lever Bridge believe that Aurangzeb’s policies – religious, Rajput, Deccan, etc. led to the decline of the Mughal Empire. Historians like Satish Chandra, Irfan Habib and Athar Ali have considered the decline of the Mughal Empire to be the result of a long-term process.
- After Aurangzeb’s death, his sons Muazzam, Muhammad Azam and Muhammad Kambakhsh fought for succession, in which Muazzam succeeded.
Bahadur Shah I (1707 AD to 1712 AD)
- After succeeding in the war of succession, Muazzam attained the throne of Delhi at the age of 65 with the title of Bahadur Shah I.
- Bahadur Shah adopted a friendly policy towards the Marathas and the Rajputs. This freed Shambhaji’s son Shahu from Mughal captivity.
- Bahadur Shah accepted the Bundel ruler Chhatrasal as the lord of the Bundel kingdom.
- According to the historian Khafi Khan, the king was so careless in state affairs that people started calling him ‘Shah-e-Bekhabar’.
- Bahadur Shah I died in February 1712, during a military campaign against the Sikh leader Banda Bahadur. It is buried in the courtyard of Aurangzeb’s tomb.
- Sir Sidney Oven has written about Bahadur Shah that he was the last Mughal ruler, about whom some good things can be said.
Jahandar Shah (1712 AD to 1713 AD)
- After the death of Bahadur Shah, I in 1712 AD, his son Jahandarshah ascended the throne of the Mughal rule.
- With the help of powerful emir Zulfiqar Khan of Iranian origin, Jahandar Shah became the ruler by killing his brothers Azim-us-Shan, Rafi-Us-Shan and Jahan Shah.
- It was an inept and luxurious ruler. Jahandar Shah was greatly influenced by his girlfriend Lalkanwar.
- Jahandar Shah appointed Zulfiqar Khan to the highest rank of wazir.
- Jahandar Shah introduced a new system of contractual revenue collection for improving the financial system, which is called the Ismtari system.
- Jahandar Shah made the king of Amber Sawai Jaisingh the governor of Malwa with the title of ‘Mirza’.
- Jahandar Shah conferred the title of ‘Maharaja’ on Raja Ajit Singh of Marwar and made him the Subedar of Gujarat.
- Azimushan’s son Farrukhsiyar assassinated Jahandar Shah from the throne with the help of Hindustani Amir Syed brothers.
Farrukhsiyar (1713 AD to 1719 AD)
- With the help of the Sayyid brothers, Farrukhsiyar ascended the throne of Mughal Sasan.
- Farrukhsiyar appointed Abdullah Khan as Wazir and Hussain Ali as Mir Bakshi from the Sayyid brothers. The Sayyid brothers are known as ‘ruler makers’ in medieval Indian history.
- During the rule of Farukhasiyar, the leader of the Sikhs, Banda Bahadur, was captured and killed in 1716.
- Farrukhsiyar made many business concessions to the British East India Company in 1717 AD.
- In 1719 Husain Ali Khan signed the ‘Treaty of Delhi’ with the then Maratha Balaji Vishwanath under which the Maratha kingdom was recognized by the Mughal emperor, conferring the right of the Marathas to collect Chauth and Sardeshmukhi from the 6 provinces of the Mughals in the Deccan. In return, the Marathas had to keep 15 thousand soldiers in Delhi to protect the emperor.
- The Syed brothers conspired and killed Farrukhsiyar from the throne in June 1719 and killed him.
- After the murder of Farrukhsiyar, the Syed brothers made Rafi-ur-Darjat and Rafi-ud-Daula the Mughal emperors. Both were puppets of Syed brothers.
- Rafi-ud-doula assumed the title of ‘Shah Jahan II’ and ascended the throne of the Mughal rule.
Muhammad Shah (1719 AD to 1748 AD)
- After the death of Shah Jahan II, his son Roshan Akhtar ascended the throne of Mughal rule by the Syed brothers with the title of Muhammad Shah.
- During the reign of Mohammad Shah, the Sayyid brothers fell. After them, Amen Khan was made the buzzer. But after his death, Nizam-ul-Mulk became Wazir, who later went to the Deccan after being fed up with the intrigues of the Mughal court.
- Muhammad Shah finally concluded in 1724 by doing Jaziya.
- He was called ‘Rangeela’ because of Muhammad Shah’s indifference to public affairs and delicacy in luxury.
- During its rule, the subedars of many states had established their independent power.
- During his reign, Nadir Shah along with Iran invaded India in 1739.
- During the reign of Muhammad Shah, Ahmad Shah Abdali, the successor of Nadirshah, invaded Punjab in 1748 AD with 50 thousand soldiers.
Ahmed Shah (1748 AD to 1754 AD)
- After the death of Muhammad Shah in 1748, Ahmad Shah became the Mughal ruler.
- Ahmed Shah made Safdarjung, the Subedar of Awadh, his wazir.
- Ahmed Shah was an inept and corrupt ruler. Taking advantage of his weakness, his mother Udham Bhai had captured the rule in association with Javed Khan, the chieftain of the eunuchs.
- Ahmed Shah Abdali invaded India five times during the reign of Ahmed Shah between 1748-59.
- Imad-ul-Mulk, with the help of the Maratha Sardar Malhar Rao, became the wazir of the Mughal Empire by overthrowing Safdarjung.
- 1754 Wazir Imad-ul-Mulk, with the help of the Marathas, overthrew Ahmad Shah and installed Azizuddin, son of Jahandar Shah, as ‘Alamgir II’.
- Alamgir II was the puppet of Wazir Imad-ul-Mulk. Imad-ul-Mulk killed Alamgir II in 1759.
Shah Alam II (1759 AD to 1806 AD)
- After Alamgir II, Aligauhar, assuming the title of Shah Alam II, sat on the throne of the Mughal rule.
- Shah Alam II participated in the battle of Buxar against the British in 1764 along with Mir Qasim, the ruler of Bengal and Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula of Awadh.
- After the historic defeat in the battle of Buxar, the British made a treaty of Allahabad with Shah Alam, by which Shah Alam got the territory of Kada and Allahabad. Mughal emperor Shah Alam provided the Diwali of Bengal Bihar and Orissa to the East India Company. In return, the company promised to give 26 lakh rupees.
- In 1772 AD, Maratha Sardar Mahadji Scindia re-established the pensioner Shah Alam II on the throne of Delhi.
- Ruhala Sardar Ghulam Qadir blinded Shah Alam II and killed him in 1806 AD.
- In 1803, at the time of Shah Alam II, Delhi became British.
- After the death of Shah Alam II, his son Akbar II became the Mughal emperor in 1806 under the protection of the British.
- He ruled until 1837. He sent Raja Ram Mohan Roy to England.
Bahadur Shah II (1837 AD – 1857 AD)
- After the death of Akbar II, Bahadur Shah II became the Mughal emperor. It used to write Shayari in the name of Zafar.
- Due to the support of the rebels in the revolt of 1857, the British deported it and sent it to Rangoon where it died in 1862.
- It proved to be the last ruler of the Mughal Empire. With its death, the Mughal Empire came to an end in India.
Important facts (Mughal Empire Family Tree – Decline of Mughal Empire)
Important facts about “Mughal Empire Family Tree – Decline of Mughal Empire”.
- The arrival of European trading companies in India was from Portuguese, Dutch, English, Dane, and French.
- The first European passenger to arrive in India was Vasco da Gama, the second passenger was Portuguese Pedro Alvarez Cabral.
- The first Portuguese governor was Francisco Almeida, while the first Englishman was John Milden Hall.
- The founders of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras and Delhi were Gerald Aungia, Job Charanak, Francis and Edwin Lutyens respectively.
- The first rebel landlord to oppose the British was Shobha Singh, the landowner of Burdwan.